And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia, the Jews made insurrection with one accord against Paul, and brought him to the judgment seat,
Note 10 at Ac 18:12: Gallio was the brother of Seneca, the famous Stoic philosopher (see note 4 at Ac 17:18) who was Nero's tutor. According to Adam Clarke's Commentary, Seneca described his brother Gallio as "a man of the most amiable mind and manners.... He was of the sweetest disposition, affable to all, and beloved by every man." Gallio's treatment of the Jews' accusations against Paul certainly shows that he was a fair man and not interested in perverting justice for favors.
Gallio was the ruler over all of Achaia (see note 11 at this verse). Gallio, along with his brother Seneca and another brother named Annaeus Mela, were murdered by the tyrant Nero.
Note 11 at Ac 18:12: When the Romans conquered Greece, they divided it into two provinces, Macedonia (see note 1 at Ac 16:9) and Achaia. Achaia was the southern province, with Corinth (see note 1 at Ac 18:1) as its capital.
Note 12 at Ac 18:12: This persecution against Paul was a good testimony to the fact that he was having a large impact with the Gospel message. Although persecution is not good, it's a good sign (see note 1 at Ac 5:17 and note 6 at Ac 5:28).