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That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; [even] in him:
Note 17 at Eph 1:10: A dispensation is simply a period of time during which God deals with mankind in a certain way. Some scholars have designated seven different dispensations of God's dealings with mankind (see note 4 at 1Co 9:17). The two dominant dispensations in Scripture are the dispensation of Law and the dispensation of grace, or as some call it, the "church age," in which we now live (see note 1 at Lu 16:16).
Here, Paul was speaking about the end of this dispensation of grace, or the Millennium, when Christ will rule supreme over all.
Note 18 at Eph 1:10: The New International Reader's Version translates Eph 1:9-10 as "He showed us the mystery of his plan. It was in keeping with what he wanted to do. It was what he had planned through Christ. It will all come about when history has been completed. God will then bring together all things in heaven and on earth under one ruler. The ruler is Christ." Today's English Version translates the end of Eph 1:10 as "to bring all creation together, everything in heaven and on earth, with Christ as head."
These translations are in keeping with what Paul was saying because the phrase "gather together in one" comes from one compound Greek word that means "to sum up" (Strong's Concordance). The last part of this Greek word "ANAKEPHALAIOMAI," "KEPHALAIOMAI," is derived from the word "KEPHALE." KEPHALE means "the head" (Strong's Concordance). The thought is that God is bringing everything together under the headship or Lordship of Jesus. That has always been God's purpose and plan, and it will be accomplished. Those who do not make Jesus Christ preeminent and Lord over their lives are entirely out of focus with the eternal purpose of God.
Note 19 at Eph 1:10: The things that God will bring together and subjugate under Christ are not spelled out for us, but certainly, they include angels and man, as well as the government of heaven and the government of earth. All of these will be ruled by Christ from one throne. We will live together with all of God's creation (angels included) on the new earth (see note 2 at Mr 12:25).