And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.
Note 6 at Eph 6:4: After instructing children, Paul turned to parents and, more specifically, to fathers. It is interesting that he singled out fathers to address this command to. Fathers tend to be more stern and authoritative than mothers, and therefore more prone to provoking their children to wrath (see note 7 at this verse).
Those who have children will also find it interesting that Paul omitted telling the children not to provoke their parents to wrath. It seems like he missed a good opportunity to set things straight. However, it is to be assumed that parents are the ones who are supposedly more mature and, therefore, more accountable for their actions.
Note 7 at Eph 6:4: This command is critical. In an effort to train children up correctly, some parents, especially fathers (see note 6 at this verse), are overbearing. Part of a parent's responsibility is to point out mistakes the children make. However, if not balanced with love and positive statements, this can provoke wrath in the children and discourage them (Col 3:21). Children can easily feel like "I can't do anything right" or "I can never please them." This leads to discouragement and an attitude that drives children in the other direction.
The phrase "provoke...to wrath" came from one Greek word, "PARORGIZO." It literally means "to anger alongside, i.e. enrage" (Strong's Concordance). It was translated in the following ways: "do not exasperate your children" (New International Version), "never drive your children to resentment" (The Jerusalem Bible), "do not provoke your children to anger" (Revised Standard Version), "don't keep on scolding and nagging your children" (The Living Bible), and "don't over-correct your children or make it difficult for them to obey the commandment" (Phillips New Testament Bible).
Note 8 at Eph 6:4: The Greek word from which "nurture" was translated is "PAIDEIA," and it denotes "disciplinary correction" (Strong's Concordance). This same word was translated "chastening" in Heb 12:5, 7, and 11, and "chastisement" in Heb 12:8. The word "admonition" was translated from the Greek word "NOUTHESIA," and this Greek word refers to a "mild rebuke or warning" (Strong's Concordance). Notice that Paul specified "the nurture and admonition of the Lord" (emphasis mine). There is a godly way to administer discipline and rebukes; therefore, there must be an ungodly way to do it.