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And went to [him], and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him.
Note 7 at Lu 10:34: Although Jesus Himself always healed people through faith, He was commending the Samaritan in this instance for going out of his way to provide every need of the wounded man (see note 1 at Mt 12:10 and note 4 at Mr 3:4).
From a medical perspective, wine contains alcohol, which is effective as an antiseptic to kill harmful bacteria and disease germs. Oil (probably olive oil) would work in much the same way as petroleum jelly to ease the pain of cuts and abrasions and provide a protective layer over wounds to stop infection and promote healing.
The Samaritan went to the full extent of his ability--and beyond--to help the man. The priest and Levite did nothing.
Note 8 at Lu 10:34: Inns were not so necessary in Jesus' day as they are today, since travelers were usually offered hospitality in people's homes. The inns spoken of in New Testament times were often erected by wealthy people for the benefit of wayfaring travelers, and there was no charge for a stay there. However, they offered nothing of what we would consider "necessities" in our modern day.
The public inn was simply a place of both shelter and protection for people and animals. It consisted of a small, square, open court with a well in the middle. Along the four sides of the court were rooms for travelers, stalls for cattle, and chambers for personal possessions. The rooms generally were void of furniture, and the travelers were expected to provide their own mats or use their own clothing for beds. Travelers were also expected to provide their own food for themselves and their cattle. Food generally could not be purchased at an inn unless, as was rarely the case, there was a host there, as in this instance (Lu 10:35). Even with a host present at an inn, the cost of food and lodging was so minimal that two pence was enough to provide a stay of up to two months, according to biblical scholars.